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Matt Ridley: Climate Change Lobby Wants To Kill Free Speech | The Global Warming Policy Forum (GWPF)

Stuff We Wish We Wrote - Homepage - April 25, 2016, 6:38 PM
Date: 25/04/16 Matt Ridley, The Times A letter by peers about The Times’ coverage of global warming is part of a systematic campaign to shut down debate The…

Obamacare disaster will be Obama’s enduring domestic legacy

Health Care Suite - In The News - April 25, 2016, 6:21 PM
Historian David Maraniss notes , in Sunday’s Post, that President Obama came to office with the goal of changing “the trajectory of America” and leaving “a…

Obamacare disaster will be Obama’s enduring domestic legacy

Stuff We Wish We Wrote - Homepage - April 25, 2016, 6:21 PM
Historian David Maraniss notes , in Sunday’s Post, that President Obama came to office with the goal of changing “the trajectory of America” and leaving “a…

Tobacco Control Experts Tell FDA Study Suggest E-Cigarettes Offer More Benefit than Harm

Somewhat Reasonable - April 25, 2016, 3:45 PM

The journal Addiction published a study on April 25, with seven international tobacco control experts compelling the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to have an open mind regulating vaporized nicotine products such as e-cigarettes and vaporizers.

Researchers include lead author David T. Levy, PhD, Georgetown University; K. Michael Cummings, PhD, MPH, Medical University of South Carolina; Andrea C. Villanti, PhD, MPH; Ray Niaura, PhD; David B. Abrams, PhD, Truth Initiative; Geoffrey T. Fond, PhD, University of Waterloo, Canada; and Ron Borland, PhD, Cancer Control Victoria, Australia.

Lead author Levy is “concerned the FDA, which has asserted its right to regulate e-cigarettes, will focus solely on the possibility that e-cigarettes and other vapor nicotine products might act as a gateway to cigarettes.”

“We believe that the discussion to date has been slanted against e-cigarettes, which is unfortunate, because the big picture tells us that these products appear to be used mostly by people who aready are or who are likely to become cigarette smokers,” adds Levy.

Regulating e-cigarettes and vaping products as traditional tobacco is incorrect as studies have shown that e-cigarette’s levels of intoxicants are 9-450 times lower than levels that are present in tobacco cigarette smoke. A study published by Public Health England, the U.K.’s version of the CDC, concluded that e-cigarettes are around 95% less harmful than tobacco cigarettes. E-cigarettes and vaping products are increasingly being utilized as cessation devices. Studies have shown that this industry is very beneficial to helping tobacco cigarette smokers quit.

The authors of the study also caution that substantial regulation and taxation of e-cigarettes and vaping products will diminish the potential benefits that the industry can provide.

Levy stated that “increasing e-cigarette prices by taxing them the same way as cigarettes will discourage youth VNP use, but also discourage use by smokers, especially those of lower socioeconomic status, who are trying to quit.”

As of May 2015, seven states have included e-cigarettes and vaporized nicotine dispensers in at least one definition of “tobacco product in state law”, meaning that seven states are regulating e-cigarettes, and taxing them, as tobacco products, when in fact, e-cigarettes do not contain any tobacco.

The FDA should take these studies into account when regulating e-cigarettes and vaporized nicotine products. Moving many away from tobacco cigarettes, this industry is necessary to lower health costs and outcomes associated with traditional cigarettes. As I have explained in a previous Research & Commentary, “States should take sound science into consideration when deliberating the creation of regulations or taxes on e-cigarette products. States imposing bans, excessive regulations, or high taxes on e-cigarettes could be creating an environment in which consumers choose to use more-harmful traditional cigarettes, rather than less-harmful alternatives.”

Categories: On the Blog

Heartland Daily Podcast – Elizabeth Yore: Looking Back, Heartland Brings Climate Truth to the Vatican

Somewhat Reasonable - April 25, 2016, 2:42 PM

In today’s edition of The Heartland Daily Podcast, Elizabeth Yore, International Child Advocate Attorney joins Host Donald Kendal to talk about the impact The Heartland Institute made last year when they sent a delegation of climate experts to stir debate on the topic of global warming.

Yore, while not a climate expert, was part of the delegation sent to the Vatican. One of the justifications of the Pope issuing an encyclical about global warming was the claim that it related to child and human trafficking. Yore, an expert in this topic, explains how no connection of these two topics existed. She discusses the media coverage The Heartland Institute stirred and the impact the conference had on the overall narrative.

[Please subscribe to the Heartland Daily Podcast for free at this link.]

Categories: On the Blog

Amicus brief for Impression Products v. Lexmark International

Out of the Storm News - April 25, 2016, 1:09 PM

According to the patent exhaustion doctrine, once a patentee sells an article embodying the patented invention, “the patentee may not thereafter, by virtue of his patent, control the use or disposition of the article.” United States v. Univis Lens Co., 316 U.S. 241, 250 (1942). Yet the Court of Appeals approved of two mechanisms by which a patentee may sell a patented article and yet still control use or disposition of that article. The questions presented are whether those mechanisms are tenable under the exhaustion doctrine. Specifically:

1. Whether a “conditional sale” that transfers title to the patented item while specifying post-sale restrictions on the article’s use or resale avoids application of the patent exhaustion doctrine and therefor permits the enforcement of such post-sale restrictions through the patent law’s infringement remedy.

2. Whether, in light of this Court’s holding in Kirtsaeng v. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. that the common law doctrine barring restraints on alienation that is the basis of the exhaustion doctrine “makes no geographical distinctions,” 133 S. Ct. 1351, 1363 (2013), a sale of a patented article—authorized by the U.S. patentee—that takes place outside of the United States exhausts the U.S. patent rights in that article.

The full amicus brief is attached above. 

Study Finds Electronic Payments Boost Economy, Jobs

Somewhat Reasonable - April 25, 2016, 12:18 PM

The electronic payments industry has revolutionized worldwide markets, making services like Amazon, Uber, Airbnb, and touch and pay systems possible.  As the industry grows and innovates, consider the effects of this technology on the US economy.

According to a new study, the economic efficiencies produced from using payment cards create over 23 million permanent jobs and add 12 percent to the gross domestic product.

The history of market exchange has seen an evolution from barter, to primitive forms of currency, to minted coins, to bank notes, to nationally backed currencies, to personal checks, to what is now an international system of electronic exchange that moves money safely and accurately at the speed of light.

Two factors lead to electronic payments increasing the size of the economy. First, the easier and cheaper it becomes to complete transactions, the more willing people are to engage in those transactions. In more technical terms, when transaction costs go down, GDP goes up. Secondly, when economists calculate the size of the money supply, and then how rapid the turnover rate of that money (its velocity), the greater the amount of economic activity that money can support.

This is how the electronic payment system has increased the size of the U.S. economy – increasing personal-consumption expenditures by 17 percent, and increasing employment by 20 percent.

A new study by The Perryman Group, an economic and financial analysis firm headquartered in Waco, Texas, found that electronic payments systems generated business activity in the United States (compared to the results if no such system existed) of an estimated $1.7 trillion in annual gross domestic product and 23,166,000 permanent jobs in 2014. The cumulative impact from 1970 to 2014 indicates an increase in gross domestic product of $34 trillion and 387 million person-years of employment. It also found that increased electronic payments since 2004 resulted in an estimated gain of $432.927 billion in annual gross product and 5,652,464 permanent jobs as of 2014.

 

If you were to consider how inefficient it would be to mail a check to a retailer across the country, wait for the mail to deliver it, for the mailroom to process it, and for the bank to clear it before mailing you your purchase, you can begin to see just how remarkable our present system of instantaneous transactions really is.

What’s more, the ease of these electronic transactions give rise to even relatively small businesses marketing themselves worldwide, since they can be assured of rapid and accurate payment in their home currency.

And because consumers have so many options with payment cards, our decisions to purchase have been expanded considerably. We can use prepaid cards, which are electronic cash, debit cards, which are electronic checks, or credit cards which amount to instant electronic loans. The increased ease of transactions has increased consumer spending, an important factor in economic growth.

And with those choices, consumers’ use of electronic payments is exploding. In its latest analysis, Juniper Research predicts a 20 percent increase in the value of mobile, contactless and online payments this year, rising from $3 trillion in 2015 to $3.6 trillion in 2016.

For those of us who remember the introduction of Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs), they were an alternative to standing in line at a bank for cash. The payment card networks are a giant leap past that technology, whereby we don’t have to travel or wait to make almost any payments anymore.

While we may have begun to take our worldwide electronic payment networks for granted, consider just how convenient and efficient they have made our lives, and how much our economy has come to depend on them.

Peter J. Ferrara is a member of the Committee to Unleash Prosperity, a Senior Fellow for Entitlement Reform and Budget Policy at the Heartland Institute, and a Senior Policy Advisor to the National Tax Limitation Foundation.

[Originally published at the Daily Caller]

Categories: On the Blog

Cato Scholar Presents Insight About New Direction for Supreme Court

Somewhat Reasonable - April 25, 2016, 11:20 AM

America’s Future Foundation held an intimate briefing with a leading Supreme Court expert, Ilya Shapiro, Senior Fellow in Constitutional Studies, Cato Institute and Editor, Cato Supreme Court Review, on Monday, April 18, 2016, at the University Club of Chicago. 

The AFF chapter in Chicago, and those in more than 20 cities around the country, are a safe haven for free-market young professionals to network, discuss ideas, and learn the skills they need to become effective lifelong advocated for free markets, limited government, and personal responsibility. 

Roger Custer, executive director of America’s Future Foundation, spoke of the common purpose AFF has with the Illinois Policy Institute in its defense of those who made our nation great.  An on-going effort is being made to establish 50 chapters in cities across the nation by 2018 to promote personal responsibility, free market, and limited government, with a goal is to bring down to a personal level those principles embraced by AFT as a way to inspire millenniums. 

Mr. Ilya Shapiro, upon being introduced by Roger Custer, discussed the future of the court after the passing of Justice Scalia, in remarks based upon his topic of the night:  A New Direction for the Supreme Court?

Shapiro’s thoughts about Antonin Scalia

Scalia joined the Supreme Court in 1986 and proceeded to revolutionize what it meant to be a legal theorist, thus changing the way the justices approached their craft. As an originalist, Scalia based his decisions on what the words meant in the Constitution when ratified.  Before Scalia Constitutional texts were often used when the history wasn’t clear.

District of Columbia v. Heller was cited by Shapiro as an example of Scalia’s interpretation of the law according to the dictates of the Constitution.  Judge Scalia delivered the opinion of the Court in considering whether a District of Columbia prohibition on the possession of usable handguns in the home violates the Second Amendment to the Constitution.  

What does the passing of Scalia portend for the Supreme Court?

Now that the Court is split ideologically, so many important issues will be decided by the judge who replaces Scalia.  Mr. Shapiro is of the opinion that it wouldn’t matter if a so-called moderate like Garfield were confirmed, or a more liberal judge candidate. Shapiro applauds the Republican decision of “NO HEARING; NO VOTE”, and for keeping a stiff spine so far, not only because the seat to be filled is a pivotal one and the replacement would not be sitting to hear arguments until fall, but also because it is only fair for the public to have one more cycle to figure out the direction of this country in light of the partisan political atmosphere that prevails in the Supreme Court.

Regarding the recently argued immigration bill (4/18/2016), a 4 – 4 split decision would be seen as a victory for the challenger.  Stressed was that most law happens in the lower courts.  Only a fraction of cases advance to the Supreme Court. 

Shapiro reflected that if Hillary wins in November she’ll probably stick with Merritt Garland and that he will be confirmed in early January.  A word of caution:  These three judges are up in years and the next president might have the opportunity to appoint three new judges:  Ruth Bader Ginsburg (83); Stephen G. Breyer (78); and Anthony M. Kennedy (78).  

Mr Shapiro described Judicial Activism as used on both the right and the left, as an “empty term.”  It is used today, because so often in he 60’s and 70’s Constitutional restraint was practiced and thought acceptable.  Instead of striking down a law it was deemed preferable “to sit on ones hands.”

Thoughts about Chief Justice John Roberts

Ilya Shapiro denied that Justice Roberts was confused when voicing his opinions. Other than the two Obamacre cases, Shapiro stated that “Republicans don’t have much beef against him.”  Shaprio was then asked why he though Roberts ruled as he did? 

In the Obamacare ruling of 2012, Obamacare was upheld when Justice Roberts was able to label the individual Obamacare mandate as a tax, even though it wasn’t called a tax by President Obama. The law’s challengers had rejected the characterization of the law as a tax, noting the mandate as a penalty.

Scalia lashed out at Chief Justice John Roberts for his key vote to save a provision of the Affordable Care Act that allowed the federal government to provide healthcare subsidies to Americans in 34 states that did not set up their own healthcare exchanges. 

The law should have been considered unconstitutional since tax bills must originate in the House.  The House did file a brief, but nothing came of it, and the decision was left standing.  This article suggests it was Robert’s concern over his legacy as Chief Justice as reason why he literally created the tax issue out of thin air so he could side with the Obama administration.

Closing thought:  Those present agreed that the system of checks and balances has been shattered by the regulatory state; however, progressives aren’t concerned about government control; they relish it.

Some in the room did take exception to a few derogatory comments Ilya Shapiro made about Republican candidate Donald Trump. 

Before Shapiro’s comments, John Tillman, one of sponsors of the event and CEO of the Illinois Policy Institute, spoke positively about Illinois’ future. The Illinois Policy Institute, which he heads, is striving to turn a blue state into red; it is now purple. Two reasons why optimism should prevail: 1)  Speaker Mike Madigan doesn’t run the show, there is competition at the state level reflected by a .2 difference in the number of Democrats casting ballots as compared to Republican voters.  2)  The Democrat agenda reflects a dangerous game with their group identity pitch to black, single women, and millenniums.  In order to attract all groups catered to by Democrats, most importantly millenniums, the pro-freedom argument must be made.

Also present as a member of the Host Committee was Robert E. Russell, Jr, who was a member of the Senior Management of The Heritage Foundation, serving as Counselor when Edwin Feulner, Ph.D served as President of The Heritage Foundation.

A post-reception followed Shapiro’s presentation, as a continuation of the reception that preceded the event.

[Originally published at Illinois Review]

Categories: On the Blog

Get Ready To Ditch The SAT And ACT

Blog - Education - April 25, 2016, 10:41 AM

Decades from now, education historians may observe Common Core (CC) provoked a wave of activism that resulted in decentralizing U.S. education.

That was not what the power elites intended when they concocted standards and assessments intended to apply to all students, teachers, and schools. Their objective was centralization. But their arrogance has activated a hornets’ nest of angry parents intent on reclaiming control over their children’s schooling.

The revolt is going beyond the widespread opt-outs from federally mandated Common Core-linked testing.  Behind the scenes, hard work is proceeding on long-dreamed-of alternatives to the College Board’s century-old dominance of college-entrance testing. Impetus for that came when a key member of the Common Core cabal, testing consultant David Coleman, went straightway from writing the CC English standards to heading up the College Board on an explicit vow to align its SAT with Common Core.

Testing a New Test

Now, with the start of 2016 SAT testing, that has happened. However, the Vector Assessment of Readiness for College (ARC)—a budding SAT alternative—is happening, too. For four years, remarked company spokesman Julie West, “We spent a great deal of time researching entrance exams dating back generations, speaking with professors, retired educators, and professionals. Questions were developed, submitted, and reviewed. Sample questions were also sent to outside evaluators.”

ARC beta testing is underway, most recently at the Great Homeschooling Convention in Cincinnati during the first weekend of April. Homeschool families are a natural constituency because linking the SAT and other standardized tests to a de facto national curriculum places homeschoolers’ hard-won freedom from statist overreach and offensive standards in grave peril, but the ARC alternative also may prove to be useful for private and parochial schools, as well as public schools in states not plugged in to Common Core.

“Because the homeschool community is the only sector that has not experienced dramatic shifts in standards or curriculum over the past several years, we have focused on them during beta,” said West. “However, any student with an SAT/ACT or PSAT score may participate in beta testing.

“Because our assessment evaluates math skills through calculus, contains science through chemistry and physics, and contains questions regarding grammar and classic literature, we believe high-achieving students from private and public schools will also benefit from ARC,” said West. “Because we will not permit super scoring, much of the socioeconomic bias has been addressed. Finally, because we are not a timed test, those with special-needs students have been excited to learn about ARC.”

A Drive to Feed Students Substance

Super scoring is a dubious practice whereby students can take their highest scores from multiple SAT tests and piece them into one inflated outcome. Eliminating that kind of gaming would be a solid initial accomplishment for Vector ARC.

The Vector team states its assessment will “assess both proficiency of subject matter as well as overall cognitive abilities,” thus maximizing students’ opportunities “to present their strengths.”

At least one other alternative to the entrance-exam monolith is already available, offered through the Annapolis-based Classic Learning Initiatives, which started in 2015. Administered online at testing centers, the two-hour Classic Learning Test (CLT) draws on the works of some of the greatest minds in Western tradition, thinkers of the caliber of C.S. Lewis, Flannery O’Connor, G.K. Chesterton, Martin Luther King Jr., Plato, and Socrates. Several renowned liberal arts colleges, including St. John’s and Thomas Aquinas, accept CLT scores as an alternative to the SAT or ACT.

Alternatives to the powerhouse College Board, founded in 1900, have been a long time coming. The ACT became one such alternative in November 1959, and in 2011, it actually edged out the SAT in total test-takers. Richard Innes, an education analyst at the Bluegrass Institute, says some officials at ACT still believe its “traditional mission is to provide a quality college readiness test that is useful to college admissions offices.” However, Innes also said ACT’s recent joint venture with Pearson Publishing to create a Common Core-type test called Aspire appears to have introduced “mission confusion” at the company.

Then there is the freshly revised federal education law that lets school boards use the SAT and ACT as their federally mandated annual tests, even for students who don’t plan to go to college, saving money for local school districts and ensuring these education-testing giants have continuous access to a $700-million-per-year market. With big education and big testing continuing to feed off each other, the yearning for individualized alternatives is likely to grow.

[Originally published at the Federalist]

Get Ready To Ditch The SAT And ACT

Somewhat Reasonable - April 25, 2016, 10:41 AM

Decades from now, education historians may observe Common Core (CC) provoked a wave of activism that resulted in decentralizing U.S. education.

That was not what the power elites intended when they concocted standards and assessments intended to apply to all students, teachers, and schools. Their objective was centralization. But their arrogance has activated a hornets’ nest of angry parents intent on reclaiming control over their children’s schooling.

The revolt is going beyond the widespread opt-outs from federally mandated Common Core-linked testing.  Behind the scenes, hard work is proceeding on long-dreamed-of alternatives to the College Board’s century-old dominance of college-entrance testing. Impetus for that came when a key member of the Common Core cabal, testing consultant David Coleman, went straightway from writing the CC English standards to heading up the College Board on an explicit vow to align its SAT with Common Core.

Testing a New Test

Now, with the start of 2016 SAT testing, that has happened. However, the Vector Assessment of Readiness for College (ARC)—a budding SAT alternative—is happening, too. For four years, remarked company spokesman Julie West, “We spent a great deal of time researching entrance exams dating back generations, speaking with professors, retired educators, and professionals. Questions were developed, submitted, and reviewed. Sample questions were also sent to outside evaluators.”

ARC beta testing is underway, most recently at the Great Homeschooling Convention in Cincinnati during the first weekend of April. Homeschool families are a natural constituency because linking the SAT and other standardized tests to a de facto national curriculum places homeschoolers’ hard-won freedom from statist overreach and offensive standards in grave peril, but the ARC alternative also may prove to be useful for private and parochial schools, as well as public schools in states not plugged in to Common Core.

“Because the homeschool community is the only sector that has not experienced dramatic shifts in standards or curriculum over the past several years, we have focused on them during beta,” said West. “However, any student with an SAT/ACT or PSAT score may participate in beta testing.

“Because our assessment evaluates math skills through calculus, contains science through chemistry and physics, and contains questions regarding grammar and classic literature, we believe high-achieving students from private and public schools will also benefit from ARC,” said West. “Because we will not permit super scoring, much of the socioeconomic bias has been addressed. Finally, because we are not a timed test, those with special-needs students have been excited to learn about ARC.”

A Drive to Feed Students Substance

Super scoring is a dubious practice whereby students can take their highest scores from multiple SAT tests and piece them into one inflated outcome. Eliminating that kind of gaming would be a solid initial accomplishment for Vector ARC.

The Vector team states its assessment will “assess both proficiency of subject matter as well as overall cognitive abilities,” thus maximizing students’ opportunities “to present their strengths.”

At least one other alternative to the entrance-exam monolith is already available, offered through the Annapolis-based Classic Learning Initiatives, which started in 2015. Administered online at testing centers, the two-hour Classic Learning Test (CLT) draws on the works of some of the greatest minds in Western tradition, thinkers of the caliber of C.S. Lewis, Flannery O’Connor, G.K. Chesterton, Martin Luther King Jr., Plato, and Socrates. Several renowned liberal arts colleges, including St. John’s and Thomas Aquinas, accept CLT scores as an alternative to the SAT or ACT.

Alternatives to the powerhouse College Board, founded in 1900, have been a long time coming. The ACT became one such alternative in November 1959, and in 2011, it actually edged out the SAT in total test-takers. Richard Innes, an education analyst at the Bluegrass Institute, says some officials at ACT still believe its “traditional mission is to provide a quality college readiness test that is useful to college admissions offices.” However, Innes also said ACT’s recent joint venture with Pearson Publishing to create a Common Core-type test called Aspire appears to have introduced “mission confusion” at the company.

Then there is the freshly revised federal education law that lets school boards use the SAT and ACT as their federally mandated annual tests, even for students who don’t plan to go to college, saving money for local school districts and ensuring these education-testing giants have continuous access to a $700-million-per-year market. With big education and big testing continuing to feed off each other, the yearning for individualized alternatives is likely to grow.

[Originally published at the Federalist]

Categories: On the Blog

Despite Gloomy News, Life is Actually Getting Better

Somewhat Reasonable - April 25, 2016, 10:33 AM

It seems the news these days is nothing but bad. Through the media, we are told crime and violence rates are rising, rich cronies are getting richer and low-income earners are getting poorer, and war or rumors of war between countries across the globe run rampant.

But are things on Earth really getting worse than they were in the past, or do technologies such as the Internet just make it easier to learn about goings-on in far-flung parts of the world that would have occurred in the past without the common man knowing anything about them?

The answer, according to data collected by international organizations such as the World Bank and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) may surprise some (if they get their news from politicians and the media.)

Objectively speaking, the human condition is getting better over time, not worse, thanks to the spread of free-market ideas across the world.

For example, data collected by HumanProgress.org, a project of the Cato Institute, suggests people on Earth have, on average, become more financially secure in just the past 10 years. According to figures from the OECD, the average amount of money any person could be expected to have saved after taxation rose by 40 percent from 2005 to 2015, jumping from $21,950 to $30,745.

Not only do people have more disposable income to save and spend as they please, they have more years in which they can use that money to enjoy life. Data from the World Bank show a baby boy born in 2014 has an average life expectancy of 69.1 years, while a boy born in 1960 had a life expectancy of only 51.9 years. Human medicine and technology have advanced so much in just the past 50 years that babies born today are expected to live almost 33 percent longer than their grandfathers.

Happiness and enjoyment of life’s blessings can’t be fully measured by economic or medical statistics. For example, what use would a long and prosperous life be if we didn’t have music in our lives? It’s a good thing, then, that there is more music to enjoy today than there was just 30 years ago.

According to MusicBrainz, an open-data online music encyclopedia, there have been more new albums and singles released in just 2015 than there were during the 14-year period spanning from 1980 to 1994.

If things are objectively getting better for people, then why do so many think things are getting worse?

Unfortunately, it’s not in the interests of our media to talk about all of the ways in which life is improving. To quote a fictional news reporter from popular video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, “Officials say there are still no reported casualties, which is truly unfortunate, as it makes for incredibly boring news.”

Lawmakers also have little use for reporting good news, because people may otherwise realize these improvements in human life occurred as a result of people freely conducting business with one another, without the help of government regulations and agencies. Instead, lawmakers and politicians focus on life’s negatives and propose more policies and politics as the solutions to the world’s problems, which are often caused by policies and politics.

Instead of believing the media and political spin that things are getting worse and government is the only answer, people need to research the facts and realize freedom has directly improved human happiness on Earth. It is quantifiable that wherever people are free, they have the means to be happy.

[Originally published at Washington Times]

Categories: On the Blog

Betsy’s page: cruising the web

Out of the Storm News - April 25, 2016, 10:32 AM

From Betsy’s Page

Eli Lehrer details some of the reasons why Harriet Tubman is such an admirable role model. In addition to her work leading 300 slaves to freedom on the Underground Railroad, she was also a brave spy during the Civil War.

10 rising stars in the energy and environment world

Out of the Storm News - April 25, 2016, 10:30 AM

From The Hill

Catrina Rorke, director of energy policy, R Street Institute

Rorke has become a champion of a controversial idea: that taxing carbon dioxide emissions is a conservative solution to climate change.

It’s a challenging case to make, because most Republican policymakers dispute that humans significantly contribute to climate change. But Rorke sees a carbon tax as one of the few palatable options for Republicans who want action to mitigate global warming.

 

7 Top Takeaways from EU’s Google-Android-Tying Charges

Somewhat Reasonable - April 25, 2016, 10:25 AM

The European Commission has charged Alphabet-Google with abusing its dominance in the market for “general Internet search services,” by implementing an Android “strategy of mobile devices to preserve and strengthen its dominance in general Internet search.” The EU objects to a variety of secret Google contract conditions to manufacturer licenses to leverage the dominant (>90% share) Android OS to secretly restrict and foreclose competition in ways that ultimately harm consumer choice and innovation. The EU effectively charged that Google has already anticompetitively extended its >90% dominance in search to dominance in the >90% share of the “licensable smart mobile operating system,” and to dominance in the >90% share of the “app stores for the Android” market.

Summary of 7 Top Takeaways from EU-Google-Android Antitrust Charges

  1. Google- Android’s “open” defense is not the whole truth and nothing, but the truth.
  2. EU is now world’s de facto antitrust top cop, not the DOJ-FTC.
  3. Begs a big question: Why did the FTC silently bury the 2012 FTC staff report on Android-tying?
  4. Android-tying is a relatively straightforward legal case.
  5. Android-tying is very different from the search case.
  6. Apple iOS is NOT an Android competitor for ANTITRUST purposes.
  7. Android competition is on life support.

The 7 Top Takeaways Explained

(1) Google-Android’s “open” defense is not the whole truth and nothing but the truth. There is a reason that when one has to swear to tell the truth in court, one has to promise to not only tell the truth, but also the whole truth and nothing but the truth. That’s because the truth is not a simple assertion, but what emerges from assertions being tested via investigation, cross examination and common sense. Google’s public defense against the EU’s Android-tying Statement of Objections, comes in simple blog post entitled: “Android’s Model of Open Innovation.” Google states very general and defensible honorific platitudes about its Android business model that are true as far as they go, because they focus superficially on what the public can see and what the Google branding touts.

The big problem with Google’s superficial defense is that the EU Statement of Objections does not challenge what Google says in its blog defense. The EU is charging that behind-the-scenes, out of public view, Google confidentially, secretly and anticompetitively behaves in ways that are not pro-openness, pro-competition, or pro-open-innovation like they claim in public.

The EU is charging that the facts that Google does not want the public to ever learn, actually dis-empower hundreds of manufacturers with secret contractual restrictions that effectively limit manufacturers choices, all to empower Google to profitably extend its dominance into other markets and foreclose potential competitive threats to Google. Simply, this case is about exposing and prosecuting heretofore secret anti-competitive Android-tying behavior that Google wants to keep out of public view.

If Google is truly innocent here and really wants the public to know that Google genuinely operates an “open” model and ecosystem, then why doesn’t Google effectively open-source the language in all of their OEM and network operator contracts on a Wiki so the public can see transparently, if Google is, or is not, using its Android gatekeeper power to discriminate in favor of Google at the expense of competition and competitive innovation? Isn’t the whole purpose and strength of a true open model the trust that true transparency and openness generate?

(2) EU is now the world’s de facto antitrust top cop, not the DOJ-FTC. Google is the obvious #1 global antitrust problem of interest to countries other than the U.S. Only the EU antitrust authority has charged Google with both search-bias and Android-tying abuses of dominance. In addition, the EU is now the only jurisdiction with: a holistic view of the Google-Android antitrust problem; the most facts and understanding of the markets; and the commitment and courage to lead the rest of world’s antitrust review of Google, sans DOJ-FTC.

(3) Begs a big question: Why did the FTC silently bury the 2012 FTC staff report on Android-tying? Now that we know that both the EU and Russian antitrust authorities separately concluded that Google’s tying of Android with Google Apps is an abuse of dominance, why did the FTC preemptively shut down its 2011-2012 Android investigation and then cover it upwithout any public communication or explanation?

We now know from the 2012 Google-FTC staff report that just before the FTC closed all its Google antitrust investigations, the FTC staff report stated: “Staff continues to investigate Google’s conduct in the mobile [Android] arena and will address these issues in a supplemental memorandum;” (fn. 51, p120) and noted that “Since Google’s release of the first commercially available mobile device running Android OS in October 2008, Android’s market share has grown exponentially.” (fn. 51, p120)

The inexplicable nature of the FTC’s closure of its Android-tying investigation in 2013, adds to the many other facts that suggest that the FTC abruptly closed all FTC antitrust probes into Google for political reasons after the 2012 election. The FTC Chairman’s statement at the time made it clear “all of its competition-related investigations of Google were settled,” which would obviously include the Android-tying probe that the FTC staff in October 2012 said they were continuing to investigate and would prepare an Android “supplemental memorandum” for the Commissioners.

However, in all the statements explaining the settlement of supposedly all of the Google antitrust issues the FTC staff were investigating, there inexplicably is zero mention of the existence of the FTC staff’s official Android-tying investigation; what the staff discovered/concluded; or how the FTC finally decided to officially resolve the probe for the public record.

Even worse, there was no official vote of the FTC commissioners on closing the Android tying matter when they voted on four other issues in four different ways, 4-1; 3-0-2; 4-0-1; and 5-0. Were the other commissioners even told in the frenzied political rush to shut down all FTC Google antitrust probes, that they did not have a say in closing the FTC’s separate Android-tying investigation? Tellingly FTC Commissioner Rosch warned in his concurring and dissenting statement that: “… our “settlement” with Google creates very bad precedent and may lead to the impression that well-heeled firms such as Google will receive special treatment at the Commission.”

The FTC’s closure of its Android probe, is even more inexplicable and deceptive because in the FTC press statement the FTC Chairman claimed the FTC conducted an “incredibly thorough and careful investigation” in publicly explaining the three parts of the investigation that were settled with Google (i.e. abuse of: SEP patents, advertising APIs, and website opt-outs) and the two matters that resulted in no action or settlement despite commissioner concerns (i.e. search bias and unauthorized content scraping).

Why was there no explicit mention of the FTC’s Android-tying investigation or why the FTC decided to close it like they did with search bias and content scraping? Did Google politically insist in its settlement negotiations that the FTC’s Android investigation be closed with no public disclosure of why? Did the premature, inexplicable, and un-voted-on, closure of the FTC’s Android-tying investigation result from the “special treatment” that Commissioner Rosch warned against at the time?

(4) Android-tying is a relatively straightforward legal case. This Android case is a classic “bread and butter” straightforward antitrust case. For the layman it can be considered a repeat of, or the 2016 sequel to, the EU’s successful case against Microsoft for de facto tying its media player and Internet browser to its monopoly operating system. The hardest legal elements of this antitrust case are largely settled law as a result of the EU v. Microsoft legal precedent, e.g. relevant market definition of the licensable operating system market, which excludes Apple iOS, and that tying apps to a dominant operating system is an abuse of dominance and harms consumers and innovation. Moreover, the copious definitive evidence in this case is literally eight years of executed contracts with manufacturers; so the main evidence in this case is highly discoverable, finite, tangible, and straightforward.

(5) Android-Tying is very different from the search case. This case is about abuse of dominance in the wholesale OEM/network-operator smartphone market, not the consumerretail smartphone market. The EU has charged Google with abusing its dominance by effectively requiring contracts with ~400 original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to accept a de facto exclusive ecosystem arrangement of Android and a pre-loaded set of prominently placed Google apps like search, Play store, Chrome, etc., if the OEM wants to offer Google’s free and best-marketed mobile operating system in the marketplace to sell its phones.

(6) Apple iOS is NOT an Android competitor for ANTITRUST purposes. The EU asserts in the lone footnote in its Fact Sheet that it has concluded that Apple iOS is not a competitor to Android in stating: “[1]Android is a licensable operating system meaning that third party handset manufacturers can use it for their devices; as opposed to operating systems exclusively used by vertically integrated developers.” As the EU’s antitrust precedent, Microsoft v. Commission determines, Apple’s iOS is not a direct competitor to Android in the “licensable smart mobile operating system” market monopoly because Apple iOS is exclusive to Apple products and is not licensed to OEMs. Moreover, Google-Android and Apple-iOS have different customers, products, and business models. In addition their models differ in customization, monetization, economics, costs, intellectual property, and data protection. If Apple iOS is not a direct competitor in antitrust analysis, Google-Android commands >95% market share in the EU’s licensed mobile OS market.

It will be interesting to see if Google’s legendary PR operation can herd the media to not report the >90% Google Android’s market share that the EU investigation concluded, but continue to report the Google supplied ~80% Android smartphone shipment market share number, that is now not the relevant defined market for antitrust purposes.

(7) Android competition is on life support. The only other material “licensable smart mobile operating systems” right now are Microsoft, Nokia, and Blackberry, and together they have<2.5% global share of shipped smartphones in 2015 per Statista. That share is headed for further decline because Facebook-WhatsApp is signaling market reality in deciding to no longer support any OS other than Android and iOS, because only Google Play and Apple’s Appstore have the critical mass of apps and app developers to support a mobile innovation ecosystem.

Given that iOS is not licensable, and that the barriers to create another mobile OS/app development/monetization are de facto insurmountable, Google-Android has enormous incentives to preference its search, Play app-store, browser, products and services over everyone else’s.

If Microsoft — the third most valuable company in the world that was willing to absorb >$15b in cumulative financial losses over several years trying to offer a competitive alternative: search engine, mobile search offering, mobile operating system, and app store to Google — can’t compete with Google-Android and had to concede the mobile market to Google-Android in 2015 to cut its financial losses, the outlook for Android competition is effectively very bleak for the foreseeable future.

Android rules mobile.

[Originally published at Precursor Blog]

Scott Cleland served as Deputy U.S. Coordinator for International Communications & Information Policy in the George H. W. Bush Administration. He is President of Precursor LLC, an emergent enterprise risk consultancy for Fortune 500 companies, some of which are Google competitors, and Chairman of NetCompetition, a pro-competition e-forum supported by broadband interests. He is also author of “Search & Destroy: Why You Can’t Trust Google Inc.” Cleland has testified before both the Senate and House antitrust subcommittees on Google and also before the relevant House oversight subcommittee on Google’s privacy problems.

Categories: On the Blog

The idea of a public good

Out of the Storm News - April 25, 2016, 9:18 AM

One of the key concepts needed to better understand the economic argument for environmental protection is the idea of a public good.

When economists talk about public goods, they don’t mean just anything that’s good for the public, such as a school or hospital. Rather, to qualify as a public good, a thing must be nonexcludable (meaning it can’t easily be provided to some, but not others) and nonrivalrous (meaning that once the good is provided to some, it doesn’t really cost more to provide it to others).

One classic example of a public good is national defense. The existence of the military protects a sovereign nation against the threat of invasion. However, it’s not possible for the military to protect my neighbor from the invasion or attack without also protecting me. So national defense is nonexcludable. And, there’s really no incremental cost to protecting both of us compared to costs to protect my neighbor alone. Thus national defense is nonrivalrous.

The not so good thing about public goods is that the market doesn’t easily produce them. The fact that a public good is nonexcludable means I’d continue to receive its benefits even if I don’t pay for it.

From a self-interest point of view, I’m better off letting others bear the cost, while I “free ride” on their contributions. If everyone acts in his or her own interest, however, no one would be willing to pay for the public good at all, and the public good wouldn’t exist. This problem is known as the public goods problem (economists are nothing if not creative) or, sometimes, as the “free rider” problem.

One traditional solution to this problem is government action.

People don’t get to choose whether they will contribute toward national defense; they have to pay their taxes or they risk jail time. Economists like Elinor Ostrom have also written about ways that groups have used social norms and other nonstate mechanisms to overcome the public goods problem. In some cases, more carefully or creatively defined property rights can alleviate the public goods problem by giving a single individual or group ownership of the asset.

Many environmental problems are best understood as public goods problems. Clean air, for example, looks like a typical public good; it’s hard for me to have clean air without my neighbors having it too, and the cost of measures to improve air quality doesn’t change if he moves away and his house remains vacant.

Another example of an environmental public good is coastal wetlands. Leaving aside the strictly environmental benefits they provide, wetlands also serve as a valuable form of protection against flooding. By absorbing storm surge, wetlands can reduce the damage from flooding and windstorms, sometimes significantly. A recent estimate puts the flood-protection benefit from wetlands at $23 billion a year. Given the vulnerability of Texas’s coast to tropical storms, wetlands are vitally important to the state.

But, while wetlands can provide large economic benefits, these benefits meet the criteria for a public goods problem. A wetland that protects my house from flood damage is probably going to do the same for the other houses in my neighborhood, and the cost of maintaining the wetland typically doesn’t go up if a new house is built.

For that reason, public action to preserve wetlands (such as the recent decisions to protect wetlands using a portion of the proceeds from fines collected from BP as a result of the Deepwater Horizon Spill) can be economically beneficial to society as a whole.

Build a way out of high housing prices

Out of the Storm News - April 25, 2016, 8:25 AM

If there were 30 loaves of bread and 50 people who wanted them, you can guess what would happen. Prices for those loaves would rise, from, maybe, $2, to $3 or even $10, depending on how desperate people were to make sandwiches. Those prices wouldn’t fall until some buyers switched to tortillas or bakers started baking more bread.

That concept is so simple it’s almost embarrassing to point it out. Yet when policymakers talk about other products, they lose sight of these basics. The housing market jumps to mind. Prices throughout California are still going up. Affordability is down.

I know well-paid professionals in some coastal cities who have basically given up on the dream of homeownership given the typical $1-million-plus price tag for a tiny bungalow. A modest apartment in San Francisco can easily set you back $4,000 a month. Orange County isn’t much better.

For years, people have retorted: “That’s the price for living near the beach.” Actually, it’s the price we pay because those who already live in such lovely places lobby city councils, boards of supervisors and the state Legislature to put the kibosh on new construction, supposedly to stop congestion. A few minutes’ drive from the Golden Gate Bridge, one finds endless, lovely countryside – all tightly growth-controlled to keep out young families and other riff-raff.

In California, it’s always fair game to blame politicians. Over the years, they’ve certainly passed a lot of laws that make it tough to build new houses. As they dream up far-reaching new programs on myriad subject matters (e.g., the Secure Choice retirement plan for the private sector), they steadfastly avoid dealing with major problems where they could effect change.

“The lack of housing supply fuels headlines that reveal the state’s housing prices at their starkest,” Liam Dillon wrote in the Los Angeles Times. “It could explain why doctors and others making as much as $250,000 a year are struggling to find homes in Palo Alto.” Prices in California are double the national average, Dillon writes, yet “legislators have shied away from tackling broad efforts to increase housing supply.”

Of course, state legislators aren’t the only ones to blame. City councils and county boards of supervisors love to control housing growth. But often, they merely succumb to public pressure. The Register reported this past week that a judge ordered Huntington Beach to “immediately comply” with a previous ruling requiring it to permit more low-income units as part of a high-density housing project.

The city, which has vowed to appeal, has been at odds with housing advocates “since last May, when the council, reacting to public outcry, eliminated more than 2,400 units of potential high-density housing from plans along portions of Beach and Edinger,” according to the report. Focus on the phrase, “reacting to public outcry.” Try to find any development project that doesn’t spark a backlash from neighbors, environmentalists and slow-growth activists.

Affordable-housing activists miss the big picture, of course. They believe the solution to the housing-affordability crisis is to subsidize (or mandate) the development of below-market-price “affordable” units. That’s a drop in the bucket; traditionally, “affordable” housing is best found in the “used” housing market. There’s no constitutional right to a subsidized new condo. They are right that localities need to permit more infill housing, but they need to green-light every type of new housing. If you feed supply into the system, it will help at every price point.

Vox’s Matthew Yglesias reported that a San Francisco supervisor “is forcing the city’s chief economist to conduct an unprecedented economic impact study of the city’s various land-use and development rules.” There’s this from the Santa Rosa Press Democrat: “Healdsburg is likely to create more affordable housing if it repeals a voter-approved growth management ordinance that restricts the number of new homes to an average of 30 per year.”

Maybe the local pendulum is swinging back in a more sensible direction, even if the Legislature hasn’t gotten the memo. The problem isn’t a secret.

A report last month by the state Legislative Analyst’s Office came to this conclusion: “[C]ommunity resistance to housing, environmental policies, lack of fiscal incentives for local governments to approve housing, and limited land constrains new housing construction. A shortage of housing along California’s coast means households wishing to live there compete for limited housing. This competition bids up home prices and rents.”

It’s simple stuff. The problem won’t be fixed until people stop coming here, stop having children or the government finally just lets builders build more houses.

Scientific silencers on the left are trying to shut down climate skepticism

Stuff We Wish We Wrote - Homepage - April 24, 2016, 12:49 PM
Authoritarianism, always latent in progressivism, is becoming explicit. Progressivism’s determination to regulate thought by regulating speech is apparent in…

Nonprofits urge high court to hear patent exhaustion suit

Out of the Storm News - April 22, 2016, 5:13 PM

From Law360

EFF, along with Public Knowledge and the R Street Institute, said the Federal Circuit’s decision in Lexmark International Inc.’s infringement suit against Impression, a printer cartridge refurbisher and reseller, has created loopholes in traditional ideas regarding ownership.

California GOP blathers about freedom, but mostly backs ‘secrecy lobby’

Out of the Storm News - April 22, 2016, 5:12 PM

From Reason

In one of my favorite Far Side comic strips, the first panel offers what people typically say to dogs: “OK Ginger I’ve had it. You stay out of the garbage! Understand Ginger?” The next panel translates what dogs actually hear: “Blah blah Ginger, blah blah blah Ginger.”

I think of that comic sometimes when I’m stuck on the floor of the state Assembly or Senate and hear a Republican legislator giving a speech about “freedom.” All I hear is, “Blah blah Constitution, blah, blah limited-government.” My comprehension skills are better than the average mutt’s, but I’m trained to know blather when I hear it.

Read more…

Heartland Weekly – Thank Your Local Fracker This Earth Day!

Blog - Education - April 22, 2016, 4:38 PM

If you don’t visit Somewhat Reasonable and the Heartlander digital magazine every day, you’re missing out on some of the best news and commentary on liberty and free markets you can find. But worry not, freedom lovers! The Heartland Weekly Email is here for you every Friday with a highlight show. Subscribe to the email today, and read this week’s edition below.

If You Love the Earth or Your Pocketbook, Thank Your Local Fracker This Earth Day!
H. Sterling Burnett, Townhall
Unfairly left out of celebrations of Earth Day (today) is the success of hydraulic fracturing. It may come as a shock to environmentalists, many of whom oppose the process, but the rise of fracking has resulted in a healthier environment. The nation’s growing use of natural gas, which emits half the amount of carbon dioxide compared to burning coal, has resulted in a spectacular reduction of CO2 that renewable industries can only dream about.  READ MORE

Gore’s RICO-style Prosecution of Global Warming Skeptics
Russell Cook, American Thinker
A group of 18 attorneys general are shamelessly abusing their authority by invoking RICO statutes, which are typically used to prosecute gangsters, in an effort to silence “climate skeptics” for the “crime” of disagreeing with the hypothesis of man-caused global warming. The hook: Big oil paid these skeptics to foster false doubt about the scientific “consensus,” even though there is not one shred of evidence to prove skeptical scientists were paid to lie. In fact, it’s those who pushed climate alarmism for malice and profit, such as Al Gore, who deserve closer scrutiny.  READ MORE

Featured Podcast: H. Sterling Burnett: Global Warming Thoughtcrimes
H. Sterling Burnett, research fellow at The Heartland Institute and managing editor ofEnvironment & Climate News, joins Research Fellow Isaac Orr in this edition of the Heartland Daily Podcast to talk about the legal efforts being made to prosecute companies, researchers, and think tanks under RICO statutes. As Burnett and Orr explain, climate skeptics aren’t breaking any laws, but they are breaking an unwritten rule of the modern left by disagreeing with established climate science and policy. Burnett says these attempts to prosecute Americans with legitimate scientific views undeniably violate free-speech rights. LISTEN TO MORE

The Vaping Wars: Brian Fojtik and Victoria Vasconcellos
As the U.S. population’s appetite for cigarettes decline, pressure has mounted on the market to supply an alternative. Taking the place of the traditional tobacco cigarette is the e-cigarette – an electronic product that vaporizes a liquid, giving users a familiar smoking experience without the same harms posed by tobacco. But, as we know all too well, when a new product or service becomes popular, the government gets involved. Speakers Brain Fojtik and Victoria Vasconcellos visited The Heartland Institute to discuss how regulators are trying to wage war on vaping. If you missed any or all of this informative event, you can watch the entire program on our YouTube page. WATCH IT NOW

Come to the Grand Opening of the Michael Parry Mazur Library!
Join us for the Grand Opening of the largest freedom library in Chicagoland. The Michael Parry Mazur Library at The Heartland Institute is a rapidly growing research library containing an excellent collection of works on economics, history, political science, public policy, and related topics. With nearly 10,000 books already donated and on shelves, the library serves as a unique resource for scholars, Heartland staff, and the interested public. The library will offer free wi-fi and computer time, and library patrons will have opportunities to schedule time with Heartland research staff and policy advisors.  SEE UPCOMING EVENTS HERE

More Than Half of ACA Health Insurance CO-OPs Fold, Senate Reports
Michael McGrady, The Heartlander
More bad news for supporters of Obamacare: Twelve of 23 nonprofit health insurers, which received a total of $1.2 billion in federal loans under the Consumer Oriented and Operated Plan program, are either out of business or slated to collapse at the end of 2016. Nathan Nascimento, senior policy advisor and director of state initiatives at Freedom Partners, says, “The only option for people is for Obamacare to be fully repealed.” READ MORE

Despite Rhetoric, Life on Earth Is Objectively Getting Better
Jesse Hathaway, Washington Times
Many in the media would have you believe life is getting worse. We often hear the income gap is growing and the number of Americans earning middle-income salaries is shrinking. Many politicians blame capitalism, claiming the wealthy are exploiting the working man for their own monetary gain. Data from HumanProgress.org, a project of the Cato Institute, show otherwise. On average, people on Earth have become more financially secure over the past decade. Wealth, lifespans, and happiness all appear to be trending upward.  READ MORE

Alternatives Soon May Blossom in College-Entrance Testing
Robert Holland, The Federalist
Decades from now, education historians may observe Common Core provoked a wave of activism that resulted in decentralizing U.S. education. That was not what the power elites intended when they concocted standards and assessments intended to apply to all students, teachers, and schools. Their objective was centralization. But their arrogance has activated a hornets’ nest of angry parents intent on reclaiming control over their children’s schooling. READ MORE

Bonus Podcast: Kyle Maichle: The Article V Convention Road Map
Everyone interested in the Article V convention movement knows the number of states needed to initiate this process is 34. But this threshold is only the beginning. Kyle Maichle, Heartland’s project manager for constitutional reform, joins the Heartland Daily Podcast to help lay out the road map we can expect to see moving forward. Maichle discusses what a convention would look like, how delegates are chosen, and how long it may take to fully enact a new constitutional amendment.  LISTEN TO MORE

Alabama’s Welfare Program is a Decade Behind Most of the Country
Logan Pike, AL.com
One of the major goals of welfare reform is to help people out of government dependency and into self-sufficiency. However, this goal is not without its opposition. There is no shortage of rumors and falsehoods surrounding the proposed welfare reform bill now being considered in Alabama – a state that was awarded an “F” grade in The Heartland Institute’s 2015 Welfare Reform Report Card. Logan Pike, co-author of the report card, dispels some of these myths. READ MORE

Help Us Stop Wikipedia’s Lies!
Joseph L. Bast, Somewhat Reasonable
Many people rely on The Heartland Institute’s profile on Wikipedia to provide an objective description of our mission, programs, and accomplishments. Alas, the profile they find there is a fake, filled with lies and libel about our funding, tactics, and the positions we take on controversial issues. Wikipedia refuses to make the changes we request. It even deletes and reverses all the changes made by others who know the profile is unreliable. We need your help! READ MORE
Invest in the Future of Freedom! Are you considering 2016 gifts to your favorite charities? We hope The Heartland Institute is on your list. Preserving and expanding individual freedom is the surest way to advance many good and noble objectives, from feeding and clothing the poor to encouraging excellence and great achievement. Making charitable gifts to nonprofit organizations dedicated to individual freedom is the most highly leveraged investment a philanthropist can make. Click here to make a contribution online, or mail your gift to The Heartland Institute, One South Wacker Drive, Suite 2740, Chicago, IL 60606. To request a FREE wills guide or to get more information to plan your future please visit My Gift Legacy http://legacy.heartland.org/ or contact Gwen Carver at 312/377-4000 or by email at gcarver@heartland.org.  

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